MCS Position Statement References
1. Gibson, P. Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003;111:12,1498–1504.
2. Rea, WJ, Johnson, AR, Ross, GH, Butler, JR, Fenyves, EJ, Griffiths, B, & Laseter, J. Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity. 2006. Accessed January 1, 2007 from http://www.aehf.com/articles/A55.htm
3. Multiple chemical sensitivity: a 1999 consensus. Arch Environ Health. 1999 May-Jun;54(3):147-9.
4. Spinasanta, S. Nuclear Imaging: SPECT Scans and PET Scans. Spine Universe; 2005
5. Matthews, B.L. Defining Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Jefferson, NC: Mcfarland & Co Inc Pub; 1998.
6. Heuser G, Mena I. Neurospect in neurotoxic chemical exposure demonstration of long-term functional abnormalities. Toxicol Ind Health. 1998;Nov-Dec;14(6):813-27.
7. Callender, TJ, et al. Three-dimensional brain and metabolic imaging in patients with toxic encephalopathy. Environmental Res. 1993;60: 295-319.
8. Callender, TJ, et al. Evaluation of chronic neurological sequelae after acute pesticide exposure using SPECT brain scans. Journal Toxicology & Environmental Health. 1995;41:275-284.
9. Heuser, G, et al. Neurospect findings in patients exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. Toxicology & Industrial Health. 1994;10:561-571.
10. Ross GH, Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Hickey DC, and Simon TR: Neurotoxicity in single photon emission computed tomography brain scans of patients reporting chemical sensitivities. Toxicol Ind Health 1999;15(3-4):415-420.
11. Simon TR, Hickey DC, Fincher CE, Johnson AR, Ross GH and Rea WJ: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography of the brain in patients with chemical sensitivities. Toxicol Ind Health 1994;10:573-577.
12. Elofsson, S, et. a. Exposure to organic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work & Environmental Health. 1980;6:239-273.
13. Seppalainen, AM, et al. Neurophysiological effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work & Environmental Health. 1978;4:304-314.
14. Jonkman, EJ, et al. Electroencephalographic studies in workers exposed to solvents or pesticides. Electro Clinical Neurophysiology. 1992;82:439-444.
15. Bokina, AI, et al. Investigation of the mechanism of action of atmospheric pollutants on the central nervous system and comparative evaluation of methods of study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1976;13:37-42.
16. Ziem, G. and McTamney, J. Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105:417-436.
17. Bell I.R. Baldwin, C.M. and Schwartz, G.E. Illness from low levels of environmental chemicals: relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Am J Med. 1998;105:74S-82S.
18. Baldwin, CM and Bell, IR. Increased cardiopulmonary disease risk in a community-based sample with chemical odor intolerance: implications for women's health and health- care utilization. Arch Environ Health 1998;53:347-353.
19. Rea, W.J. Environmentally triggered small vessel vasculitis. Ann.Allergy 1977;38:245-251.
20. Rea, W.J. Environmentally triggered thrombophlebitis. Ann.Allergy 1976;37:101-109.
21. McFadden, S.A. Phenotypic variation in xenobiotic metabolism and adverse environmental response: focus on sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways. Toxicology 1996;111:43-65.
22. Cary, R., Clarke, S. and Delic, J. Effects of combined exposure to noise and toxic substances--critical review of the literature. Ann Occup Hyg 1997;41:455-465.
23. Levin, A.S. and Byers, V.S. Environmental illness: a disorder of immune regulation. Occup.Med. 1987;2:669-681.
24. Jaakkola MS, Yang L, Ieromnimon A, Jaakkola JJ. Office work exposures [corrected] and respiratory and sick building syndrome symptoms. Occup Environ Med. 2007 Mar;64(3):178-84.
25. Heuser G., Wodjani A. and Heuser S. Diagnostic markers in chemical sensitivity. In Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: Addendum to Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology, 1992l;117-138. Washington DC: National Academy Press
26. McGovern, J.J., Jr., Lazaroni, J.A., Hicks, M.F., Adler, J.C. and Cleary, P. Food and chemical sensitivity. Clinical and immunologic correlates. Arch Otolaryngol. 1983;109:292-297.
27. Galland, L. 1987. Biochemical abnormalities in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities. Occup.Med. 1987;2:713-720.
28. Gibson, PR, Cheavens, J, & Warren, ML Chemical injury chemical sensitivity and life disruption. James Madison University.
29. Bell, I.R., Wyatt, J.K., Bootzin, R.R. and Schwartz, G.E. Slowed reaction time performance on a divided attention task in elderly with environmental chemical odor intolerance. Int.J Neurosci. 1995;84:127-134.
30. Meggs W.J., Cleveland C.H., Jr. Rhinolaryngoscopic examination of patients with the multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Arch.Environ.Health 1993;48:14-18.
31. Hummel, T., Roscher, S., Jaumann, M.P. and Kobal, G. Intranasal chemoreception in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities: a double-blind investigation. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1996;24:Pt2:S79-86
32. Bell, I.R., Bootzin, R.R., Ritenbaugh, C., Wyatt, J.K., DeGiovanni, G., Kulinovich, T., Anthony, J.L., Kuo, T.F., Rider, S.P., Peterson, J.M., Schwartz, G.E. and Johnson, K.A. A polysomnographic study of sleep disturbance in community elderly with self-reported environmental chemical odor intolerance. Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:123-133.
33. Heuser, G. and Kent, P. 1996. Mast cell disorder after chemical exposure. 124th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, New York NY, 20 November 1996.
34. Zeim, G, McTamney, J. Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 March; 105(Suppl 2): 417–436.
35. Heuser G, Letter to the editor regarding Mast cell disorder to be ruled out in MCS. Arch Environ Hlth 2000;55:284-285.
36. MacPhail RC. Episodic exposures to chemicals: what relevance to chemical intolerance? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;Mar;933:103-11.
37. Schnackenberg,E. et al. A cross-sectional study of self-reported chemical-related sensitivity is association with gene variations of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Environmental Health. 2007Feb;10;6:6.
38. Meggs, WJ. Mechanisms of allergy and chemical sensitivity. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 1999;15:3-4,331-338.
39. Pall, M. Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity: central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003;111:12,1461-1464.
40. Pall, M. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: The End of Controversy. Washington State University School of Molecular Biosciences, Accessed May 18, 2006, from: http://molecular.biosciences.wsu.edu/faculty/pall/pall_mcs.htm
41. Pall, M. Novel disease paradigm produces explanations for a whole group of illnesses. Washington State University, Department of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, 2006. Accessed December 3, 2006, from: http://molecular.biosciences.wsu.edu/Faculty/pall/pall_main.htm
42. Van den Bergh O, Stegen K, Van Diest I, Raes C, Stulens P, Eelen P, Veulemans H, Van de Woestijne KP, Nemery B. Acquisition and extinction of somatic symptoms in response to odours: a Pavlovian paradigm relevant to multiple chemical sensitivity. Occup Environ Med. 1999 May;56(5):295-301.
43. Siegel S. Multiple chemical sensitivity as a conditional response. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999 Apr-Jun;15(3-4):323-
44. Siegel S, Kreutzer R. Pavlovian conditioning and multiple chemical sensitivity. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105 Suppl 2:521-6.
45. Rescorla, RA. Contemporary study of Pavlovian conditioning. The Spanish Journal of Psychology. 2002;6:2,185-195.
46. Food and Drug Administration. Confidentiality of Statements. HHS § 720.9. 156.
47. Millqvist E, Löwhagen O. Placebo-controlled challenges with perfume in patients with asthma-like symptoms. Allergy. 1996 Jun;51(6):434-9.
48. Kumar P, Caradonna-Graham VM, Gupta S, Cai X, Rao PN, Thompson J. Inhalation challenge effects of perfume scent strips in patients with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1995 Nov;75(5):429-33.
49. Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJ. Office work exposures and adult-onset asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Jul;115(7):1007-11.
50. Bornschein S, Förstl H, Zilker T. Idiopathic environmental intolerances (formerly multiple chemical sensitivity) psychiatric perspectives. J Intern Med. 2001 Oct;250(4):309-21
51. Das-Munshi J, Rubin GJ, Wessely S. Multiple chemical sensitivities: review. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Aug;15(4):274-80.
52. Irving RR, Mills JL, Choo-Kang EG, Morrison EY, Wright-Pascoe RA, McLaughlin WA, Mullings AM. Depressive symptoms in children of women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;9(1):21-4.
53. Morrison KM, Goli A, Van Wagoner J, Brown ES, Khan DA. Depressive Symptoms in Inner-City Children with Asthma. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2007 Aug;21(4):181-91.
54. Alizadehkhaiyat O, Fisher AC, Kemp GJ, Frostick SP. Pain, functional disability, and psychologic status in tennis elbow. Clin J Pain. 2007 Jul-Aug; 23(6):482-9.
55. Pallant JF, Bailey CM. Assessment of the structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in musculoskeletal patients. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2005 Dec 19;3:82.
56. Tonori H, Aizawa Y, Ojima M, Miyata M, Ishikawa S, Sakabe K. Anxiety and depressive states in multiple chemical sensitivity. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2001 Feb;193(2):115-26.
57. Fiedler N, Kipen HM, DeLuca J, Kelly-McNeil K, Natelson B. A controlled comparison of multiple chemical sensitivities and chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosom Med. 1996 Jan-Feb;58(1):38-49.
58. Gibson, PR, Elms, AN, Ruding, LA. Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003;111(12), 1498-1504.
59. Kimata H. Effect of exposure to volatile organic compounds on plasma levels of neuropeptides, nerve growth factor and histamine in patients with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity. In J Hyg Environ Health 2004;207:159-163.
60. Millqvist E, Ternesten-Hasseus E, Stahl A, Bende M. Changes in levels of nerve growth factor in nasal secretions after capsaicin inhalation in patients with airway symptoms from scents and chemicals. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:849-852.
61. Millqvist E, Bengtsson U, Lowhagen O. Provocations with perfume in the eyes induce airway symptoms in patients with sensory hyperreactivity. Allergy 1999;54:495-499.
62. Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Baldwin CM, Hardin EE. Neural sensitization and physiological markers in multiple chemical sensitivity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1996;24:S39-S47.
63. Joffres MR, Sampalli T, Fox RA. Physiologic and symptomatic responses to low-level substances in individuals with and without chemical sensitivities: a randomized controlled blinded pilot booth study. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1178-1183.
64. Anderson RC, Anderson JH. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999 Apr-Jun;15(3-4):339-45.
65. Haley, RW Billecke, S, & La Du, BN. Association of low PON1 type Q (type A) arylesterase activity with neurologic symptom complexes in Gulf War veterans. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1999;157(3):227-33.
66. Binkley, K, King, N, Poonai, N, Seeman, P, Ulpian, C, Kennedy, J. Increased prevalence of panic disorder-associated cholecystokinin B receptor allele 7. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2001;107:887-890.
67. McKeown-Eyssen, G, Baines, C, Cole, D, Riley, N, Tyndale, R, Marshall, L, & Jazmaji, V. Case-control studies of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR. International Journal of Epidemiology 2004;33, 1-8
68. Heuser G, Wu JC, Subcortical hypermetabolism and cortical hypometabolism after neurotoxic exposure. Human PET studies. 7th International symposium on neurobehavioral methods and effects in occupational and environmental health. Stockholm, Sweden June 20-23, 1999.
69. Randolph, TG & Moss, RW. (1982). An alternative approach to allergies. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
70. Dager, SR, Holland, JP, Cowley, DS, & Dunner, DL. Panic disorder precipitated by exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1987;144:8,1056-1058.
71. Bolla KI. Neuropsychological evaluation for detecting alterations in the central nervous system after chemical exposure. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1996 Aug;24(1 Pt 2):S48-51.
72. Koch, L. Multiple chemical sensitivity and rehabilitation planning implications. Kent State University Center for Disability Studies. 2004.
73. Gibson, PR, Placek, E, Lane, J, Brohimer, SO, & Earehart Lovelace, AC. Disability induced identity changes in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity. Qualitative Health Research. 2005;15:4, 1-23.
74. Bell, IR, Schwartz, GE, Peterson, JM and Amend, D. Self-reported illness from chemical odors in young adults without clinical syndromes or occupational exposures. Arch Environ Health. 1993 48:6-13.
75. Bell, IR, Schwartz, GE, Peterson, JM, Amend, D and Stini, WA. Possible time-dependent sensitization to xenobiotics: self-reported illness from chemical odors, foods, and opiate drugs in an older adult population. Arch Environ Health. 1993 48: 315-27.
76. Meggs WJ, Dunn KA, Bloch RM, Goodman PE, & Davidoff AL. Prevalence and nature of allergy and chemical sensitivity in a general population. Arch Environ Health. 1996 Jul-Aug;51(4):275-82.
77. Voorhees, RE. Memo from Deputy State Epidemiologist Voorhees to Joe Thompson, Special Counsel, Office of the Governor. New Mexico Department of Health. 1998.
78. Bell, IR, Warg-Damiani, L, Baldwin, CM, Walsh, ME and Schwartz, GE. Self-reported chemical sensitivity and wartime chemical exposures in Gulf War veterans with and without decreased global health ratings. Mil Med. 1998 163:725-
79. Kreutzer R, Neutra RR, & Lashuay N. Prevalence of people reporting sensitivities to chemicals in a population-based survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Jul 1;150(1):1-12.
80. Caress SM, & Steinemann AC. A national population study of the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivity. Arch Environ Health. 2004 Jun;59(6):300-5.
81. Caress SM, & Steinemann AC. National prevalence of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: an examination of potential overlap. J Occup Environ Med. 2005 May;47(5):518-22
82. Fox RA, Joffres MR, Sampalli T, Casey J. The impact of a multidisciplinary, holistic approach to management of patients diagnosed with multiple chemical sensitivity on health care utilization costs: an observational study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Mar;13(2):223-9.
83. United States Census Bureau. U.S. POPClock Projection. Accessed April 04, 2007 from: http://www.census.gov/population/www/popclockus.html
84. Szpir, M. New thinking on neurodevelopment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006;114:2, A100-A107.
85. Muir, T, & Zegarac, M Societal costs of exposure to toxic substances: Economic and health costs of four case studies that are candidates for environmental causation. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001;109:6, 885-903.
86. Body burden: the pollution in people. 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2007, from Environmental Working Group Web site: http://www.ewg.org/reports/bodyburden/
87. Dickey, LD. Clinical Ecology. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1976.
88. Rea, WJ, & Mitchell, MJ. Chemical sensitivity and the environment. Immunology Allergy & Practice. 1982;Sept/Oct:21-31.
89. Randolph, T.G. Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1978.
90. Ader, R. Behavioral Influences of Immunity. Proceedings of American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Annual Meeting. Nashville, TN; 1987.
91. Brostoff, J, & Challacombe, S. Food Allergy and Intolerance. London: Bailliere Tindall/W.B. Saunders; 1987.
92. Calabrese, EJ. Pollutants and high risk groups. The Biological Basis of Increased Human Susceptibility to Environmental and Occupational Pollutants. New York: Wiley Interscience; 1977
93. Clayson, CD, Amdur, MO, Doull, J. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, NY.
94. Schnare, D, & Shields, M . Body burden reduction of PBS’s, PBB’s and chlorinated pesticides in human subjects. Ambio. 1954;13:378-80.
95. Davidson, M, & Fienleib. M. Disulfide poisoning: A review. American Heart H 1972;83:100.
96. Dodson, RF, Atkinson, MA. Measurements of asbestos burden in tissues. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006;1076:281-91.
97. DeRosa, CT, Hicks, HE, Ashizawa, AE, Pohl, HR, Mumtaz, MM. A regional approach to assess the impact of living in a chemical world. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006;1076:829-38.
98. Freedman, BJ. Sulphur dioxide in foods and beverages: Its use as a preservative and its effect on asthma. Br Journal Dis Chest 1980;74(2):128-134.
99. Furst, P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through breastfeeding. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2006;50(10):922-33.
100. Gilpin, A. Air Pollution, 2nd edition. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press; 1978.
101. Hill, J. Peptides and their receptors as the biochemicals of emotion. Proceedings of the American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Annual Meeting. Nashville, TN; 1987.
102. Innami, S, Tojo, H, Utsuja, S, Nakamura, A, & Nagazama, S. PCB toxicity and nutrition. PCB Toxicity and Vitamin A. Japanese Journal of Nutrition 1974;32:58-666.
103. King, DS. Can allergic exposure provoke psychological symptoms? A double-blind test. Biological Psychiatry 1981;16:3-10.
104. Kerger, BD, Leung HW, Scott, P, Paustenbach, DJ, Needham, LL, Patterson, DG Jr., Gerthoux, PM, Mocarelli, P. Age- and concentration-dependent elimination half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Seveso children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006;114(10):1596-602.
105. Larsen, JC. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food.. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2006;50(10):885-96.
106. Li, QQ, Loganath, A, Chong, YS, Tan, J, Obbard, JP. Levels of persistent organic pollutant residues in human adipose and muscle tissues in Singapore. Journal Toxicology & Environmental Health A. 2006;69(21):1927-37.
107. Laseter, JL, DeLeon, IR, Rea, WJ, & Butler, JR. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in environmentally sensitive patients. Clinical Ecology. 1983;2(1):3-12.
108. National Research Council. Indoor Pollutants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1981.
109. Pan, Y, Johnson, AR, & Rea, WJ. Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents in chemically sensitive patients. Clinical Ecology. 1987-88;5(3):126-131.
110. Rea, WJ, Johnson, AR, Smiley, RE, Maynard,B, & Dawkins-Brown, O. Magnesium deficiency in patients with chemical sensitivity. Clinical Ecology 1986;4(1):17-20.
111. Rea, WJ, et al.. Toxic volatile organic hydrocarbons in chemically sensitive patients. Clinical Ecology 1987;5(2):70-74.
112. Stokinger, HE. Ozone toxicology: A review of research and industrial experience, 1954-1962. Archives of Environmental Health. 1965;110:719.
113. Villeneune, DC, Grant, DL, Phillipos, WEJ, Clark, ML, & Clegg, DJ. Effects of PCB administration on microsomal enzyme activity in pregnant rabbits. Bull Environmental Contamination & Toxicology. 1971;l6:120.
114. Winslow, SG. The effects of environmental chemicals on the immune system: Selected Bibliography with Abstracts. Oak Ridge, TN: Toxicology Information Response Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 1981.
115. Yaktine, AL, Harrison, GG, Lawrence, RS. Reducing exposure to dioxins and related compounds through foods in the next generation. Nutrition Reviews. 2006;64(9):403-9.
116. Tretjak, Z, et al. PCB reduction and clinical improvement by detoxification, Human Experiment Toxicology, 1990;9:235-44.
117. Anderson, RC, & Anderson, JH. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products. Archives of Environmental Health. 1998;53(2):138-46.
118. Sarwar G, Olson DA, Corsi RL, Weschler CJ. Indoor fine particles: the role of terpene emissions from consumer products. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2004 Mar;54(3):367-77.
119. LoVecchio F, Fulton SE. Ventricular fibrillation following inhalation of Glade Air Freshener. Eur J Emerg Med. 2001 Jun;8(2):153-4.
120. Anderson, RC, & Anderson, JH. Toxic effects of air freshener emissions. Archives of Environmental Health. 1998;52(6):433-41.
121. Anderson RC, Anderson JH. Respiratory toxicity of fabric softener emissions. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 May 26;60(2):121-36.
122. Anderson RC, Anderson JH. Acute respiratory effects of diaper emissions. Arch Environ Health. 1999 Sep-Oct;54(5):353-8.
123. Saiyed, H, Dewan, A, Bhatnagar, V, Shenoy, UI, Shenoy, R, Rajmohan, H, Patel, K, Kashyap, R, Kulkarni, P Rajan, B, & Lakkad, B. Effect of Endosulfan on Male Reproductive Development. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Dec;111:16.
124. Beard, J, Sladden, T, Morgan, G, Berry, G, Brooks, L, & McMichael, A. Health Impacts of Pesticide Exposure in a Cohort of Outdoor Workers. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003 May;111:5.
125. Sobel, E, Gianini, J, Butfiloski, EJ, Croker, BP, Schiffenbauer, J, & Roberts, SM. Acceleration of Autoimmunity by Organochlorine Pesticides in (NZB NZW)F1 Mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005 Mar;113:3.
126. Baldi, I, Filleul, L, Mohammed-Brahim, B, Fabrigoule, C, Dartigues, JF, Schwall, S, Drevet, JE, Salamon, R, & Brochard, P. Neuropsychologic Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Pesticides: Results from the French Phytoner Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001 Aug;109:8,.
127. Kamel, F & Hoppin, JA. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives: 2004 June;112:9.
128. Orbaek, P & Lindgren, M. Prospective Clinical and Psychometric Investigation of Patients with Chronic Toxic Encephalopathy Induced by Solvents. Scand J of Work Environ and Health, 14:37-44, 1988.
129. Kilburn, K. Chemical Brain Injury, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
130. Meydani, M. Antioxidants and cognitive function. Nutr Rev 2001;59: S75-S82.
131. Gregersen, P. Chronic Toxic Encephalopathy in Solvent-exposed Painters in Denmark 1976-1980: Clinical cases and social consequences after a 5-year follow-up. Am J of Ind Med, 1987;11: 399-417.
132. Ban M, Langonné I, Huguet N, Pépin E, Morel G. Inhaled chemicals may enhance allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitised mice. Toxicology. 2006 Sep 21;226(2-3):161-71.
133. Singer BC, Destaillats H, Hodgson AT, Nazaroff WW. Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids. Indoor Air. 2006 Jun;16(3):179-91.
134. Liu X, Mason M, Krebs K, Sparks L. Full-scale chamber investigation and simulation of air freshener emissions in the presence of ozone. Environ Sci Technol. 2004 May 15;38(10):2802-12
135. Foo, S. Chronic Neurobehavioral Effects of Toluene. J. Ind. Medicine, 1990;47:480-544.
136. Farrow A, Taylor H, Northstone K, Golding J. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Oct;58(10):633-41.
137. Reynolds, P, Von Behren, J, Gunier, RB, Goldberg, DE, Hertz, A, & Harnly, ME. Childhood Cancer and Agricultural Pesticide Use: An Ecologic Study in California. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002 Mar;110:3.
138. The Associated Press. Fisher-Price recalls 1M toys. Cable News Network. August 1, 2007.
139. Schneider, A. Popcorn supplier to drop toxic chemical. Seatle Post Intelligencer. September 5, 2007.
140. Lauer, C. FEMA to buy back trailers: Concerns over formaldehyde levels prompt the plans, which are disclosed in an internal memo. The agency will stop selling the homes. Los Angeles Times. National News. August 11, 2007.
141. Tilson, HA. Developmental Neurotoxicology of Endocrine Disruptors and Pesticides: Identification of Information Gaps and Research Needs. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. 1998 Jun;106:S3.
142. Farrow, A, Taylor, H, Northstone, K, Golding, J. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products. Archives of Environmental Health. 2003;58(10):633-41.
143. Morrow, L. Alternations in Cognitive and Psychological Functioning After Organic Solvent Exposure. J. Occ Med. 1990;32:444-450.
144. Rea, WJ, Peters, DW, Smiley, RE, et al. Recurrent environmentally triggered thrombophlebitis. Ann Allergy 1981;47:338-344.
145. Jollow, DJ, et al. Biological reactive intermediates: Formation, toxicity, and innetivation. New York; 1977.
146. Ziem, G. Medical Evaluation and Treatment of Patients with Chemical Injury and Sensitivity. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2001.
147. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Symptoms. 2006. Accessed January 2, 2007, from Centers for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/cfssymptomsHCP.htm
148. Lax, MB, & Henneberger, PK. Patients with multiple chemical sensitivities in an occupational health clinic: Presentation and follow-up. Archives of Environmental Health 1995;50:425-431.
149. Treatment efficacy, a survey of 305 MCS patients. The CFIDS Chronicle, Winter 1996, 52-53.
150. Davis, TH, Jason, LA, & Banghart, MA. The effect of housing on individuals with multiple chemical sensitivities. Archives of Environmental Health, 1995;50:425-431.
151. Miller, CS. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1995;37:13-23.
152. Sears, M. The Medical Perspective on Environmental Sensitivities. Canadian Human Rights Commission. 2007.
153. Salvador, Lourdes. 1998 - 2007 MCS, Toxic Encephalopathy, & Toxic Injury Proclamations. 2006-2007. Accessed September 5, 2007, from MCS America Web site: http://mcs-america.org/index_files/proclamations.htm
154. Pall, M. Community Spotlight: An Interview with Martin L. Pall, PhD. MCS America News. 2007 Oct;2:10, 11-13.
155. Lieberman, A. D. and M. R. Craven. Reactive Intestinal Dysfunction Syndrome (RIDS) caused by chemical exposures. Arch Environ Health 1998;53(5): 354-8.
156. Furlong, C. E., T. B. Cole, et al. Role of paraoxonase (PON1) status in pesticide sensitivity: genetic and temporal determinants. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26(4): 651-9.
157. Hulla, J. E., M. S. Miller, et al. (1999). "Symposium overview: the role of genetic polymorphism and repair deficiencies in environmental disease." Toxicol Sci 47(2): 135-43.
158. Thier, R, Golka, K, Brüning, T, Bolt HM. [Genetic Susceptibility in view of toxic workplace charges and environmental impacts.] Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz. 1999 Nov;42:11;834-840.
159. European Commission; Environment DG. Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances, European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). Accessed September 17, 2007 from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/reach/reach_intro.htm
160. US Code. Toxic Substances Control Act. Title 15 – Commerce and Trade, Chapter 53. Accessed September 17, 2007 from: http://www.access.gpo.gov/uscode/title15/chapter53_.html
161. Kuklinski, B., Scheifer, R., and Bleyer, H. Hirnschrankenprotein S-100 und Xenobiotica-Susceptibilitat. Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 2003;16:112-120.
162. Abou-Donia M. B., Goldstein L. B., Dechovskaia A., Bullman S., Jones K. H., Herrick E. A., Abdel-Rahman A. A., Khan W. A. Effects of daily dermal application of DEET and permethrin alone and in combination, on sensorimotor performance, blood-brain barrier, and blood-testis barrier in rats . J Toxicol Environ Health. 2001;A62,523-541.
163. Pall, Martin L. Explaining 'Unexplained Illnesses': Disease Paradigm for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Fibromyalgia, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Gulf War Syndrome. Bighampton, NY: The Hawthorne Press. 2007.
164. Ashford, NA, Miller, CS. Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. 1998.
165. Miller CS. Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli. Addiction. 2000; 96:115-139.
This site is for informational purposes and is not intended to replace the examination, diagnosis and treatment of a licensed physician and no such claims are inferred. MCS America will not be responsible for misuse of this information or the misuse of any information provided by it’s member organizations. Articles, citations, links and information are not necessarily the opinion of MCS America and printing does not constitute endorsement.
Science & Medicine