MCS Position Statement References

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1. Gibson, P.  Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  2003;111:12,1498–1504.

2. Rea, WJ, Johnson, AR, Ross, GH, Butler, JR, Fenyves, EJ, Griffiths, B, & Laseter, J.  Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity.  2006. Accessed January 1, 2007 from

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4. Spinasanta, S. Nuclear Imaging: SPECT Scans and PET Scans.  Spine Universe; 2005

5. Matthews, B.L. Defining Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.  Jefferson, NC: Mcfarland & Co Inc Pub; 1998. 

6. Heuser G, Mena I.  Neurospect in neurotoxic chemical exposure demonstration of long-term functional abnormalities.  Toxicol Ind Health.  1998;Nov-Dec;14(6):813-27.

7. Callender, TJ, et al.  Three-dimensional brain and metabolic imaging in patients with toxic encephalopathy.  Environmental Res. 1993;60: 295-319.

8. Callender, TJ, et al.  Evaluation of chronic neurological sequelae after acute pesticide exposure using SPECT brain scans.  Journal Toxicology & Environmental Health.  1995;41:275-284.

9. Heuser, G, et al.  Neurospect findings in patients exposed to neurotoxic chemicals.  Toxicology & Industrial Health.  1994;10:561-571.  

10. Ross GH, Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Hickey DC, and Simon TR: Neurotoxicity in single photon emission computed tomography brain scans of patients reporting chemical sensitivities.  Toxicol Ind Health 1999;15(3-4):415-420. 

11. Simon TR, Hickey DC, Fincher CE, Johnson AR, Ross GH and Rea WJ: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography of the brain in patients with chemical sensitivities.  Toxicol Ind Health 1994;10:573-577.

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29. Bell, I.R., Wyatt, J.K., Bootzin, R.R. and Schwartz, G.E. Slowed reaction time performance on a divided attention task in elderly with environmental chemical odor intolerance. Int.J Neurosci. 1995;84:127-134.

30. Meggs W.J., Cleveland C.H., Jr.  Rhinolaryngoscopic examination of patients with the multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome.  Arch.Environ.Health 1993;48:14-18.

31. Hummel, T., Roscher, S., Jaumann, M.P. and Kobal, G.  Intranasal chemoreception in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities: a double-blind investigation.  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1996;24:Pt2:S79-86

32. Bell, I.R., Bootzin, R.R., Ritenbaugh, C., Wyatt, J.K., DeGiovanni, G., Kulinovich, T., Anthony, J.L., Kuo, T.F., Rider, S.P., Peterson, J.M., Schwartz, G.E. and Johnson, K.A.  A polysomnographic study of sleep disturbance in community elderly with self-reported environmental chemical odor intolerance.  Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:123-133.

33. Heuser, G. and Kent, P. 1996.  Mast cell disorder after chemical exposure.  124th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, New York NY, 20 November 1996.

34. Zeim, G, McTamney, J.  Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity.  Environ Health Perspect. 1997 March; 105(Suppl 2): 417–436.

35. Heuser G, Letter to the editor regarding Mast cell disorder to be ruled out in MCS.  Arch Environ Hlth 2000;55:284-285.

36. MacPhail RC.  Episodic exposures to chemicals: what relevance to chemical intolerance?  Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;Mar;933:103-11.

37. Schnackenberg,E. et al.  A cross-sectional study of self-reported chemical-related sensitivity is association with gene variations of drug-metabolizing enzymes.  Environmental Health.  2007Feb;10;6:6.

38. Meggs, WJ.  Mechanisms of allergy and chemical sensitivity.  Toxicology and Industrial Health.  1999;15:3-4,331-338.

39. Pall, M.  Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity:  central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  2003;111:12,1461-1464.

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44. Siegel S, Kreutzer R.  Pavlovian conditioning and multiple chemical sensitivity.  Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105 Suppl 2:521-6.

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51. Das-Munshi J, Rubin GJ, Wessely S.  Multiple chemical sensitivities: review.  Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Aug;15(4):274-80.

52. Irving RR, Mills JL, Choo-Kang EG, Morrison EY, Wright-Pascoe RA, McLaughlin WA, Mullings AM.  Depressive symptoms in children of women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.  Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;9(1):21-4.

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57. Fiedler N, Kipen HM, DeLuca J, Kelly-McNeil K, Natelson B.  A controlled comparison of multiple chemical sensitivities and chronic fatigue syndrome.  Psychosom Med. 1996 Jan-Feb;58(1):38-49.

58. Gibson, PR, Elms, AN, Ruding, LA.  Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  2003;111(12), 1498-1504.

59. Kimata H.  Effect of exposure to volatile organic compounds on plasma levels of neuropeptides, nerve growth factor and histamine in patients with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity.  In J Hyg Environ Health 2004;207:159-163.

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61. Millqvist E, Bengtsson U, Lowhagen O.  Provocations with perfume in the eyes induce airway symptoms in patients with sensory hyperreactivity.  Allergy 1999;54:495-499.

62. Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Baldwin CM, Hardin EE.  Neural sensitization and physiological markers in multiple chemical sensitivity.  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol  1996;24:S39-S47.

63. Joffres MR, Sampalli T, Fox RA.  Physiologic and symptomatic responses to low-level substances in individuals with and without chemical sensitivities: a randomized controlled blinded pilot booth study.  Environ Health Perspect.  2005;113:1178-1183.

64. Anderson RC, Anderson JH.  Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity.  Toxicol Ind Health. 1999 Apr-Jun;15(3-4):339-45.

65. Haley, RW Billecke, S, & La Du, BN.  Association of low PON1 type Q (type A) arylesterase activity with neurologic symptom complexes in Gulf War veterans.  Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1999;157(3):227-33.

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67. McKeown-Eyssen, G, Baines, C, Cole, D, Riley, N, Tyndale, R, Marshall, L, & Jazmaji, V.  Case-control studies of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR.  International Journal of Epidemiology 2004;33, 1-8

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110. Rea, WJ, Johnson, AR, Smiley, RE, Maynard,B, & Dawkins-Brown, O. Magnesium deficiency in patients with chemical sensitivity. Clinical Ecology 1986;4(1):17-20.

111. Rea, WJ, et al..  Toxic volatile organic hydrocarbons in chemically sensitive patients.  Clinical Ecology 1987;5(2):70-74.

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118. Sarwar G, Olson DA, Corsi RL, Weschler CJ.  Indoor fine particles: the role of terpene emissions from consumer products.  J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2004 Mar;54(3):367-77.

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124. Beard, J, Sladden, T, Morgan, G, Berry, G, Brooks, L, & McMichael, A.  Health Impacts of Pesticide Exposure in a Cohort of Outdoor Workers.  Environmental Health Perspectives 2003 May;111:5.

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